Against the Spirit? Use of FOI by Business

A recent study by a district council has found that business users make up more than 50% of requesters.  This local paper explained :

A study of a three-month period between March and May revealed Broadland received 191 requests, with each one taking an average of 56 minutes to complete – the maximum amount of time allowed without a charge is 18 hours. Broadland believes commercial sources submitted 63pc of the FOIs.

And Kim Davis-Claydon, cabinet member for operations and resources, told today’s cabinet meeting: “Nearly £15,000 is an awful lot of money in the current economic climate and there’s lots of better ways to spend it.

“The principle of the Freedom of Information Act is great, when used properly, but I really feel the commercial world is abusing the system.”

The study also found that private individuals and campaign groups both made up 8 % of all requesters and academics 2%. (see the full report here ). The use of FOI by businesses seems to be much heavier at local level than at central government level, as our report showed. Officials felt that businesses using FOI, particularly for commercial again, was against the ‘spirit’ of the Act.

Everybody Has Got Something to Hide?

There was an interesting attempt to use FOI to overturn a previous use of the government FOI veto yesterday. In 2009 the first veto was issued to prevent the release of the Iraq war cabinet meetings. Yesterday, Attorney General Dominic Greeve turned down a request that sought to try again to access the papers and overturn this decision.

One interesting feature of the veto, as outlined by the recent Justice Committee inquiry, is that it is only issued ‘per request’. This means you can (and in this case someone did) ask again. And got it got blocked again.

At the same time, a long running attempt to access accounts of telephone conversations between Blair and Murdoch in the run up to the war has been refused.

This is unlikely to be the end of the matter. This is tied up with the Chilcot inquiry into the invasion, which has reportedly been denied access to particular key documents by ‘senior mandarins’. It’s likely to cause even more fear among senior officials and politicians about the effects of FOI ‘exposing’ policy (one I don’t give much credit to). It may also support the view of Iraq war critics that there is something to hide.

No Going Back: Committee Protects FOI

The Justice Committee today published its report following its post legislative scrutiny of the Freedom of Information Act. It concluded:

 The Freedom of Information Act has been a significant enhancement of our democracy. Overall our witnesses agreed the Act was working well. The Freedom of Information Act has achieved its three principal objectives, but its secondary objective of enhancing public confidence in Government has not been achieved, and was unlikely to be achieved.

It should be emphasised that the right to access public sector information is an important constitutional right, a fact that can get lost in complaints about the operation of the freedom of information regime. We do not believe that there has been any general harmful effect at all on the ability to conduct business in the public service, and in our view the additional burdens are outweighed by the benefits.

Some of the key findings were that

  •  The Freedom of Information Act has made government more transparent and more accountable.
  • The Act’s impact on decision-making is unclear, though the committee felt it may have had more of an impact than we felt it did.
  •  The Act’s impact on trust is also nuanced (perhaps more nuanced,in my opinion, than the MOJ memorandum claimed).
  • Publication schemes have been overtaken by technology, though it is too early to tell what impact reforms such as Open Data have had.

The Committee looked into some of the controversies around FOI.

  •  It concluded that evidence for a chilling effect is far from clear cut. The concerns of senior minister and officials may indicate there is a problem though, as the Committee pointed out, much of their evidence fitted particular circumstances, was hypothetical or was anecdotal-see Blair’s letter here. It did not recommend any changes in this area but sought to reassure that the Act itself, combined with use of the veto, should protect the required ‘safe space’ for discussion.  See here for my reasons as to why I am sceptical about this chilling.
  •  Despite a seemingly growing pressure for some form of application fee, the committee rejected this as too difficult to operate. It also outlined how difficult it was to calculate the cost of FOI.
  •  A final interesting and controversial proposal was the recommendation that universities be given a protection similar to that under the Scottish FOI that specifically protects research information. Interviewees we spoke to in our short study were divided over whether such an exemption would work or was necessary (see the UUK evidence and FOI man’s response).

The Committee made a number of recommendations: that the period of internal review have a 20 day limit, the ‘vexatious’ safeguards in the Act be better used and that requesters be told how much their question cost to process.

The most significant part of the report was what is did not do. There has been high profile criticism of FOI, from Tony Blair to David Cameron that worried the Information Commissioner. This had led to discussion of additional protections for discussion, the introduction of fees and other changes. The committee criticised Tony Blair for not appearing.

The report also quoted Francis Maude, who addressed concerns about ‘abuse’ by the press which may be driving some of these criticisms. Maude said: ‘Can [openness] lead to embarrassment? Yes. Do we have to be a bit grown up about that? Yes, we do’.

This Act is Not for Turning: No Change to the FOI Act

 

Despite concerns that the Justice Select Committee would recommend possible restrictions to FOI, following fears from senior figures over impact on policy advice or costs, they have recommended that there be no changes to the Act.

The Committee were sceptical of some of the claims, citing work done from UCL on what is a very difficult subject (see here for discussion of this so-called ‘chilling effect’)

The committee says it did not find good evidence that the act was having a damaging effect on policy discussions, though the MPs acknowledge it was a point that was hard to prove.

The full report is to be published on the 26th July.

FOI and universities: A report on the experiences of FOI officers in HE institutions

The Constitution Unit’s research project on the impact of FOI on universities is nearing completion. To gain an insight into the experience of universities in dealing with their FOI responsibilities, we conducted a survey of FOI officers working the HE sector and examined FOI requests made to universities contained within a sample of disclosure logs.  The two-part report detailing the results of our analysis of can be found here.

We found the most common problem that FOI officers encountered were related to their colleagues,  with 92% of respondents citing resistance and a lack of awareness of the legislation amongst other staff as having a negative impact on their ability to carry out their responsibilities and respond to requests.  In addition, similar to the findings in our previous study on local government, we found that colleague orientated difficulties appear to be mitigated by a supportive senior management team.

The most frequently reported positive aspect cited by the officers was the increase in transparency and openness that the FOI/EIR legislation encouraged within their institution as confirmed by 73% of respondents. This included improvements in staff attitudes towards disclosure and the amount of information proactive published by the university. However, throughout the survey it was evident, and was also acknowledged by participants, that it was much easier for them to identify negative aspects rather than positives.

The disclosure logs showed journalists and the public to be the most common requesters, accounting for 59% of the 780 requests we analysed between them. The most commonly requested information was related to ‘student issues’, followed by ‘HR and staff issues’ and then ‘teaching and assessment’.

Journalists appear to be much more interested in interrogating student life than students are, accounting for 35% of the requests for information on ‘student issues’ compared to the 7% originating from current students, though several officers commented in the survey that they anticipate that this will increase following the introduction of the £9k tuition fees in the forthcoming academic year.

The disclosure log analysis also provided a useful indicator of the level of impact that controversial research can have on an institution. 13% of the requests we coded were about research, 84% of which were contained within the East Anglia disclosure log. This is demonstrative of the effect that the climate-based research and subsequent ‘climategate’ event had on the type and volume of requests received by East Anglia. Generally research focused requests were for research data itself or the research ‘policies’ of the institution.

Please see our report for the full details of our findings.

The project is funded by the Leverhulme Trust, and is due to be completed later this summer. Please see our project page for further outputs.

FOI and Extraordinary Rendition

A new website has been launched that aims to piece together data relating to rendition. As well as mapping the system of movement it also gives access to a wealth of documents.

FOI has played an important role in documenting the often complicated movement of flights of terrorists suspects (the movement of which has been linked to torture). The UK All Party Group on Extraordinary Rendition has used FOI to both the UK and US governments to find out about the dubious practice of moving people around the world to be interrogated.  It fought a long campaign to investigate the practice following up Parliamentary Questions with FOIs. There are some examples here.

Controversy over rendition has reignited following allegations that two Libyan dissidents, Fatima Bouchar and Abdelhakim Belhaj, were ‘rendered’ to Libya following Tony Blair’s 2006 visit. Belhaj claims he was tortured and a letter appears to link MI6 to his being moved, though Blair does not recall it.

In a new twist, recently a US judge has refused to release information to the All Party Group on the grounds it was a foreign government entity. He used a very interesting example:

The judge rejected the group’s argument that its members acted as individuals and not public officials. By that logic any foreign leader, including the late Kim Jong-il, could submit Freedom of Information Act requests under their individual capacity, the judge said.

See more background here and here.